Qurain AL-Thamad Valley Hydrological Aspects Extraction Using Remote Sensing and GIS Techniques

Abstract

In the arid to semi-arid lands the extracted hydrological features are essentialones, since their effect on water projects managing, agricultural projectsadministrating, and animals grazing, so that this research is considered to be a vitalresearch because the climate of Qurain AL-Thamad basin is arid climate and basinregion inhabited by many tribes who work in agriculture and grazing fields. Theillustration of hydrological features using morphometric analyses is optimized sincethe quantization issue of basin factors, in the past this would be difficult usingclassical procedures (i.e. using paper topographic maps and planimeter). Recently asin this work, modern procedures have been used (i.e. satellite imagery DEM asancillary image and Arc GIS 10.5 as geo-measuring and spatio-analyzing program).The pattern of Qurain AL-Thamad basin's drainage network shows a dendriticconfiguration in low orders streams and parallel configuration in the high orderstreams. The spatial analysis using GIS environment categorizes basin's shapeparameters into three categories: firstly one is the linear parameters with streamsdivided into 1st order streams with (611.587 km) length, 2nd order streams with(384.015 km) length, 3rd order streams with (181.868 km) length, and 4th orderstreams with (103.674 km) length. Bifurcation ratios were calculated, Rb1 is (2.046),Rb2 is (1.869), and Rb3 is (1.624), with (1.852) Rb mean value. Secondly categorizedeals with a areal parameters; The longitudinal drainage density was (0.259 kmˉˡ),the drainage frequency was (0.035 stream /km²), Drainage Texture value was (0.338stream / km ), the elongation ratio was (0.483), the circularity ratio value was(0.244), the form factor was (0.183) , and the relief ratio was (0.447). according tothese quantitative results the flood hazard in the basin main stream is absent, basinsoil is highly permeable and region rainfall rate is very low, there are significantdifferences in regional geological structures solidity, land steepness and relief ratioare low valued yielding a few water erosion power, sediment yield, and runoff floodpeak in the basin water catchment area.