Prostate-specific antigen and free prostate-specific antigen/prostate-specific antigen ratio in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer


Background: Prostate cancer is one of the most common cancers in men, worldwide. Many markers are suggested for prostate cancer with different specificity and sensitivity.Objectives: This study is aimed is to examine the possible utility of prostate-specific antigen indices as markers of prostate cancer.Methods: A case-control study was conducted in the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, College of Medicine, Al-Nahrain University, Baghdad, Iraq from July 2018 till March 2019, includes 84 subjects divided into three groups: twenty-four patients with prostate cancer (PCA), thirty patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and thirty healthy subjects as a control group were examined in this study. Blood samples from all participants were collected, and before obtaining a prostatic biopsy from patients. Serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and free prostate-specific antigen (fPSA) levels were quantified by the ELISA technique.Results: PSA cut-off value was found to be more than 9.57 ng/ml for PCA patients, values range between 3.17–9.57 ng/ml for BPH patients and cut-off value for control was found to be less than 3.17 ng/ml, while serum (fPSA/PSA)% cut-off value was less than 11.1% for PCA patients, values range between 11.1%—31 % for BPH patients, and cut-off value was greater than 31% for the control group.Conclusion: There is a highly significant difference in serum PSA levels and (fPSA/PSA)% between the PCA and control groups. Body mass index showed an inverse association with the risk of prostate cancer.