Serum placental growth factor and soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 in preeclamptic women at their third trimester of pregnancy


Background: Preeclampsia (PE) affects approximately 3% of all pregnancies, and it is still a major cause of the adverse perinatal outcome. PE is a multisystem disease characterized by the development of hypertension and proteinuria. Although PE etiology is not fully known, the placenta seems to play a central role in the development of the disease. The inadequate placentation process results in a change in angiogenic factors levels, such as the soluble form of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor type 1 (sFlt-1) and placental growth factor (PLGF).Objectives: To investigate the correlation between serum PLGF with soluble sFLT-1 in preeclamptic women at their third trimester.Methods: A case-control study was carried out from August 2018 till January 2019. In this study, pregnant women were collected from the Al-Elweyia, Al-Hakeem, and Al-Imamain Alkadhimain medical city. The practical part was conducted at the College of Medicine, Al-Nahrain University. The patient group includes 50 preeclamptic women in the third trimester (25 mild and 25 severe). Fifty healthy pregnant women (at their third trimester of gestation) were selected as control. Patients and control were compared for age, serum PLGF, and Sflt-1.Results: Serum PLGF levels were decreased significantly among women who developed PE (2.14±0.029 pg/ml, 2.44±0.038 pg/ml vs. 2.68±0.017 pg/ml; p<0.05) severe PE, Mild PE, and the control group respectively, while, serum sFlt1 levels were increased significantly (p<0.05) between the groups of PE, (5.81±0.025, 5.51±0.024, 5.19±0.017 pg/ml) severe, mild and control, respectively.Conclusions: Serum sFlt-1 and PLGF can be considered promising biomarkers for the preeclampsia. sFlt-1 and PLGF the ROC cut-offs (5.67 ng/ml, 2.09 ng/ml, respectively), the specificity and sensitivity of serum PLGF is more than that of serum sFlt-1, for the diagnosis of preeclampsia during the third trimester of pregnancy.