Oligohydramnios and fetal outcome in term pregnancy

Abstract

Background and objective: Oligohydramnios is defined as an amniotic fluid index less than 5th centile for gestation. It presents a threat to the fetus and has been correlated with increased risk of intrauterine growth retardation, meconium aspiration syndrome, severe birth asphyxia, low APGAR scores, and congenital abnormalities. It is associated with perinatal morbidity and mortality and maternal morbidity in a significant number of cases. Therefore, early detection of oligohydramnios and its management is important. This study aimed to determine the perinatal and maternal outcomes in oligohydramnios. Methods: This retrospective cohort study was carried out at the Maternity Teaching Hospital in Erbil from March 2018 to March 2019. A total of 300 patients were recruited, including 150 pregnant women with oligohydramnios and 150 with normal amniotic fluid index. Results: There was a significant difference between the oligohydramnios group and the comparison group in relation to parity and gestational age. Oligohydramnios was more among primigravids. The rate of cesarean section was higher in oligohydramnios group compared to the comparison group. Intrauterine growth retardation among oligohydramnios group was 13%. Oligohydramnios was associated with birth weight <2500 gm (21.3%). Conclusion: Antepartum diagnosis of severe oligohydramnios at term was associated with an increased cesarean section rate, a higher rate of admission of neonatal care unit, and low birth weight. Therefore, antepartum oligohydramnios is associated with increased perinatal morbidity and mortality.