CLEC4E is A New Biochemical Tool for Evaluation the Progression of Nephropathy Complications of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Abstract

Background: Diabetes Mellitus is a group of metabolic disorders represented by high levels of glucose in the blood as a result of a decrease or lack insulin secretion from β-cell in the pancreas or weakness in mechanical acting or both of them or defect in insulin receptors as a result of hereditary disturbance. Sometimes in another situation of diabetes disease, it is ascribed to increase the secretion of antibodies to insulin act or antibodies to pancreas gland and destroy β-cells that secrete insulin, which is due to the occurrence of disorder in carbohydrate metabolism glucose specially. Hyperglycemia is accompanied by a range of long-term diseases, dysfunction and failure of various organs, especially the heart, eyes, blood vessels, kidneys and nerves. Subjects: From the beginning of December 2018 to the end of May 2019, 158 individuals residents of Najaf and Karbala Governorates were included to participate in the current study. Method: Sandwich-ELISA technique was applied to estimate levels of CLEC4E. Results: The study showed that the largest percentage of people with diabetes who suffered from kidney failure as a result of a large and uncontrolled increase in blood sugar levels, which required the use of hemodialysis mechanism to help the kidney to perform its vital functions, although at the lowest levels were in the middle age groups (between 50 -70 years). The statistical analysis using the Student's t-test showed a significant difference (p=0.001) when comparing the two study groups (renal failure patients undergoing hemodialysis and healthy individuals), where the recorded results showed an increase in the levels of measured lectin (CLEC4L) in the sera of the patients group comparison to the controls group. The present study found a statistically significant raise (p=0.000) of the measured lectin in sera samples of males with renal failure compared with their peers in the control group, this finding was consistent with what was observed when comparing the levels of lectin in infected female samples with those in the control group (p=0.000). Moreover, the present study found significant gender differences within the same group, it was observed that the levels of the measured lectin in males (in both studied groups) were higher than in females, (p=0.001 for comparison in the patients group, and p=0.043 for comparison in the controls group, respectively). In more detail, the highest level of lectin recorded in the present study (4.587 pg/ml)was found in a sample of a woman with renal failure and undergoing repeated hemodialysis for more than a year. This woman was diagnosed with type 2 diabetes 33 years ago. It was also found the lowest level of CLEC4L (0.026pg/ml) in a sample of a 57-year-old woman who was diabetic only 12 years and undergoing hemodialysis only two months. Results of the present study indicate a positive correlation in more than three-quarters (78.23% at p<0.005) of renal failure samples, when it had been recorded a simultaneous rise in the new lectin (CLEC4L) levels assessed in the current work with the age of patients