Reviving the Ancestral Heritage: Revival and Restoration of Faded and Scrapped-Iron Gallotannin Inks in Archaeological and Historical Manuscripts and Document

Abstract

In the past years, scientific research neglected the issue of reviving the faded writings of manuscripts or treating scraped ones (Palimpsests), which led to the loss of many valuable manuscripts. So, the research tries to address this approach by experiments for the first time - far away on the suspicion of forgery or counterfeiting of its originals- by using extracts of natural materials that were previously used in preparing their inks by their copyists or authors, this to preserve their original chemical composition without alteration. In this regard, the research followed the scientific method in formulating the new experiment from sampling, passing through the evaluation methods using a spectrophotometer and the rust indicator for the oxidized samples, then the interactions that explain its hypotheses, and finally by discussing the results. The experiment was done by treating five of inks on thermal- aged, scraped or dilute sulfuric acid- swabbed samples, which were all treated using ten concentrated solutions of gallotannins, normally or excited by ultrasound, and it was found that the best results were by solutions of pyrogallol, tannic acid, gall, and myrobalan respectively, but the ultrasound excitation was effective only in terms of covering strength and homogeneity.