THE REALITY OF AGRICULTURAL TECHNIQUES USED BY FARMERS TO REDUCE LOSSES IN WHEAT AND BARLEY CROPS IN THE GOVERNORATES OF THE CENTRAL REGION OF IRAQ

Abstract

The research aims at determining the reality of agricultural techniques used by farmers in reducing the losses of wheat and barley crops in the governorates of the central region of Iraq. And to identify the most important obstacles facing farmers in the use of agricultural techniques that reduce the loss of wheat and barley crops and the obstacles related to techniques, and the constraints related to the internal and external environment. To achieve the objectives of the research I use descriptive approach, which is one of the scientific research methods. The governorates of the central region of Iraq were selected from 8 governorates and the governorates of Salah al-Din and Anbar were excluded due to poor security conditions. Thus, they became (6) governorates and a random sample of 50% was selected. The three governorates covered were Najaf, Karbala, A random sample has been selected of the agricultural divisions (33) agricultural divisions (25%) and (8) agricultural divisions distributed to the governorates covered by the research. A random sample of 1% of the wheat and barley crops were selected in the agricultural divisions surveyed. Data on agricultural techniques were collected from relevant agricultural and non-agricultural institutions. In order to obtain the information, a questionnaire was prepared for this purpose which included (26) paragraphs distributed on (5) axis. The results of the research found that the numbers and quantities of agricultural techniques in the research area are few and not suitable for cultivated areas, as well as the unregulated distribution of agricultural techniques. Aging in some of the technologies used (such as harvesters),which greatly affect the percentage of loss. The lack of financial support for agricultural techniques, the low installment period, and the lack of financial support for some agricultural techniques (fertilizers, pesticides, seeds).Weak extension role in clarifying the importance of waste and agricultural techniques that help to reduce waste. All these results are essentially cause the low level of use of agricultural techniques that reduce wastage by agriculture. The researcher recommends that use modern agricultural techniques and increase their numbers and quantities and distributed in line with cultivated, raise awareness and inform farmers of the importance of waste and agricultural techniques that help to downgrade by intensifying the role of agricultural extension agents plans to deploy the techniques, and increase financial support and reduce difficulties in obtaining techniques through soft processing mechanism.