Possible Protective Effects of Lutein against Ciprofloxacin Induced Bone Marrow Toxicity in Rats

Abstract

Ciprofloxacin, which is a second generation of fluoroquinolone and one of the most effective and widely used drugs within fluoroquinolone. Unfamiliar adverse effects of ciprofloxacin such as bone marrow (BM) suppression, thrombocytopenia, anemia, agranulocytosis, renal failure, and others observed. Lutein, is a xanthophyll (an oxygenated carotenoid), was focused by most studies as it has a strong antioxidant activity in vitro; and also, it has been associated with reducing the risk of the age-related disorders. The current study was designed to describe the role of apoptosis through the measurement of Bcl-2 associated X protein (Bax) marker, as mechanisms of bone marrow toxicity induced by ciprofloxacin and to find whether lutein may have protective effects on ciprofloxacin-induced toxicity in bone marrow of rats. Thirty six Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into six groups (six animal each): Groups Ӏ (control), rats received single oral daily dose of liquid paraffin (4ml/kg) for 25 successive days by oral gavage; Group II, (ciprofloxacin-treated), received single oral daily dose of liquid paraffin (4ml/kg body weight/day) for 25 days, and subsequently received 500 mg/kg ciprofloxacin by oral gavage for the last 5 days; Groups ӀӀӀ and ӀV, received oral dose of lutein (6mg/kg/day) and (24mg/kg/day), respectively by oral gavage for 25 successive days (lutein-treated); Groups V and VӀ, received oral dose of lutein (6mg and 24mg /kg/day), respectively by oral gavage for 25 successive days, and subsequently received 500 mg/kg ciprofloxacin orally for the last 5 days (lutein+ ciprofloxacin). Ciprofloxacin (Group II) caused significant (P<0.05) reduction in total RBCs counts and -WBCs, and significantly elevations (P<0.05) Bcl-2 associated X protein (Bax) in bone marrow (BM) tissues homogenates compared to control (Group I) rats. Rats that orally received lutein (Groups ӀӀӀ and ӀV), each produced non-significant differences (P>0.05) in total -RBCs and -WBCs and also produced non-significant differences (P>0.05) in Bax levels in BM tissues homogenates with respect to corresponding levels in Group Ι rats. Orally-administered lutein with ciprofloxacin (Groups V and VӀ), resulted in significant elevation (P<0.05) of total -RBCs and -WBCs, and significantly reduced (P<0.05) Bcl-2 associated X protein (Bax) in bone marrow (BM) tissues homogenates caused by ciprofloxacin compared to the corresponding levels in group of rats administered ciprofloxacin (Group II). Results of the current research suggested that lutein may be a useful compound that alleviated ciprofloxacin-induced toxicity on bone marrow.