The Impact of Drought on Environmental Degradation in Baiji District


Abstract Drought as a recurring and periodic climatic phenomenon, it occurs as a result of a decline in the amount of rain below the average for a long or short period of time, which leads to a decrease in the amount of water in rivers, the level of groundwater, soil moisture, and the areas of vegetation cover and natural pastures. The climate of Baiji district was studied for the period (1970 - 2020). The results of analysis of the elements of the climate shows that the number of hours of solar radiation and temperature rates have been increased. The fluctuation of the rainfall amounts indicate to negative indicator due to the decrease in its quantities in most seasons during the study period. From the application of the Standard Rain Index (SPI) coefficient, the number of dry years was (57%) of the study years and wet years was (43%) during the study period. The moderately dry was (39%)، for the same period. The drought phenomenon had a clear impact on the environmental deterioration in the Baiji district. The satellite visuals for 1995 and 2019 shows the expansion of sand dunes, wind deposits, and the decline of natural vegetation cover and agricultural lands.