Acute and sub-acute toxicity effects of lambda-cyhalothrin in chicks

Abstract

A Lambda-cyhalothrin (LTC) is classified as a synthetic type II pyrethroids, available in the local market, used to eliminate insects, which is widely used for spraying homes. This study aims to reveal the acute and subacute toxic effects of LTC in chicks as a biological model. The acute (LD50) by up and down method recorded through 24 hrs. The signs and toxicity scores were estimated, the sub-acute toxicity effects of LTC in the open-field activity and tonic immobility test, body-weight and histopathological effects were recorded. The oral LTC LD50 in chicks was 228.5 mg/kg. Oral administration of LTC at doses 57.12, 114.25, and 171.36 mg/kg, which represented 25%, 50%, and 75% of LD50 respectively, caused signs of toxicity such as depression with wing dropping, feathered by closed eyelids, gasping, and recumbency. LTC causes a significant decrease in chick’s weight, locomotor activity in the open field activity represented by increase latency to move, and decrease the number of lines crossed. The liver and brain show histopathological changes such as congestion, focal infiltration of mononuclear cells, hemorrhage, coagulative necrosis, and vasogenic edema. In the brain, the lesion was represented by shrunken in purkinji, demyelination of axon and hyper atrophy of astrocyte, the lesion was more severe in both organs when exposed to a high concentration and for longer periods. Our results demonstrated that LCT has a moderate toxicity in chicks, and causes behavioral and histological toxic effects, especially with sub-acute toxicity. Therefore, we do not recommend using it, and restricted application in homes and agriculture.