Characteristics of Cold Anticyclones and Depressions in Iraq

Abstract

Variation in Iraqi climate is mostly attributed to the disparity and difference between its primary variables such as; temperature, precipitation and other climate conditions. And also it is related to numerous exposures of many pressure systems including; the cold anticyclones and the subarctic depression which are the subject case of this research. Their pathways can be traced through our analysis of weather charts of the (11- year) micro- climate cycle which.Three climatic stations have been selected ; Mosul, Baghdad, and Basra which represent the Iraqi landforms sections. The research displays characteristics of these systems in terms of such variables such as; temperature, relative humidity as well as the other phenomena that associated with these systems, and it turned out that Iraq is affected by the control of the cold anticyclones more than the subarctic depression. Within the same context, results have shown that the highest recurrence rate and number of days of staying for cold anticyclones was recorded by Mosul station and amounted to (27.7) frequency, and (46.8) (day) for met report (00) was observed concerning length of stay. While the (1200) met report, the highest rate of staying was recorded by Basra station and amounted to (38.7) (day). As for the subarctic depression; the highest recurrence rate was (6.9) and the number of days of lasting reached (8.1) (day), and (6.9) (day) for the two met reports (00 / 1200) respectively which recorded by Mosul station. The research has revealed that air indentations pattern of the pressure level (500) millibars recorded the highest number of days of lasting associated with the cold anticyclones. While the air grooves pattern recorded the highest number of days of lasting associated with the subarctic depression. And the highest rates of temperature were recorded by the southern region stations, and then begin to decrease as we headed north in contrast to the relative humidity rates as the highest rates were recorded by the northern region stations of anticyclones and depressions. Furthermore, fog, all sorts of dust, rain and thunderstorms recorded the highest length of stay among the various climatic phenomena that associated with the cold anticyclones and the subarctic depression. A scale of statistical variation analysis has been used to measure duration of lasting of the cold anticyclones as well as relative humidity. Then, the arithmetic value of (F) has been made. The statistical results indicated that differences between the samples concerning years are little and homogeneous. On the other hand, differences are greater within samples; which means between the first day and the last day.