Hepatotoxic effect of amoxicillin/clavulanate combination in human: A review


Amoxicillin/clavulanate has been known as a semisynthetic penicillin/clavulanic acid antibiotic which is commonly used orally for the treatment of cutaneous and respiratory infections. It's an antibiotic that's easy to take. However, amoxicillin/clavulanate can induce a variety of side effects, including gastrointestinal, cutaneous, hematologic, and hepatic problems. In the present work, we aimed to review the possible risks of hepatotoxicity associated with amoxicillin/clavulanate using , since this combination widely administered for treatment of infections at different age stages for patients, This has been done via collecting and reading a large number of published articles and reviews to maintain our study.It has been suggested that the clavulanic acid or the combination with amoxicillin may cause liver injury even 4 years after the 1st injury. Liver reactions fundamentally cholestatic, however, there are as well some cases with hepatocellular or the mixed cholestatic hepato-cellular hepatitis. The sequel looks to be good. Very rarely, patient died due to amoxicillin induced cholestatic hepatitis or develop a chronic liver disease with permanent abnormal liver function tests. Amoxicillin-clavulanate induced hepatotoxicity is a rare condition, and since it is a diagnostic of exclusion, it may be hard to diagnose. Amoxicillin/clavulanate is considered one of the major used antibiotics, it only causes hepatic injury in alimented number of cases. It starts to develop signs of cholestatic after six weeks of use. It causes significant hyperbilirubinemia and induce cholestatic icterus.Liver injury may continue for four months. Treatment includes supportive. Related to the severity of cholestatic symptoms, analgesic and antiemetic medicines, along with antihistamine, cholestyramine, sertraline, or even ursodeoxycholic acid, may be used to control pruritus.