Comparative Analysis of Integer and Fractional PID for Power Regulation Integrated in an Electrosurgical Generator


The electrosurgical generator (ESG) unit must be adapted to satisfy tissue impedance unpredictability while supplying power. The body's impedance changes complicate power supply and voltage control. ESG relies on output power in the constant power range. This study's goal is to supply active power that varies with tissue impedance. The impedance tissues are represented as a parallel RC circuit with three models (Child, Male, and Female). To enhance ESGs performance, integer-order PID (IO-PID) and fractional order PID (FO-PID) controllers are designed for controlling the output power and voltage. The particle swarm optimization (PSO) method is used to optimize IO-PID and FO-PID controllers’ gains. Two control systems are compared in terms of overshot, undershot, rise and settling times, and steady-state error. It is concluded that FO-PID-based ESG is more robust and efficient compared with IO-PID-based ESG.