A brief review on the molecular biology of human adenoviruses

Abstract

Human adenoviruses infection causes diseases worldwide in all age groups and genders, which is associated with a wide range of diseases affecting the gastrointestinal tract, respiratory tract, urinary tract, and the eye, but they are often isolated from the pharynx and stool of asymptomatic children. However, in developing countries, diarrhea is a major cause of morbidity and mortality; and after rotaviruses, human adenoviruses are considered to be the second most important cause of viral infantile diarrhea. Also, human adenoviruses cause fatal acute respiratory distress syndrome in healthy adults and are especially fatal in infants and immune-compromised individuals. This review summarizes both classical and contemporary discoveries in the study of human adenoviruses at the molecular level, with particular emphasis on viral receptors, capsid proteins, nucleic acid, and genome properties as well as the molecular interactions governing the virion assembly. In this article, we provide insightful information concerning the molecular aspects of human adenoviruses. This would develop an understanding of the virus and serve as a powerful tool in identifying new approaches for the prevention and treatment of adenoviral infection.