Possible effect of genetic background in thrombophilia genes on clinical severity of patients with coronavirus disease-2019: A prospective cohort study

Abstract

Background and objective: Thrombotic and microangiopathic effects have been reported in Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) patients. In the present study, we aimed to examine the relationship between hereditary thrombophilia factors and the clinical picture severity of COVID-19 patients. Methods: Ninety COVID-19 patients were included and grouped according to the severity to three groups: severe/critical (n=30), mild/moderate (n=30) and asymptomatic (n=30). Hereditary thrombophilia genetic markers [prothrombin (FII) G20210A, factor V Leiden (FVL) G1691A, factor XIII (FXIII) V34L, methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) A1298C and C677T, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) 4G & 5G] were genotyped for all patients. Results: Seventeen (18.9%) patients had the polymorphism 4G/4G PAI-1 and 48 (53.3%) had 4G/5G. In addition, the heterozygous GA FVL, MTHRF677CT, and MTHRF1298AC polymorphisms were detected in 11 (12.2%), 26 (28.9%), and 38 (42.2%) patients, respectively. The rate of severe/critical patients with PAI 4G/5G gene polymorphism was higher than the asymptomatic+moderate/mild patients, and the rate of severe/critically ill patients with PAI 4G/4G polymorphism was found to be lower than the asymptomatic+moderate/mild patients. No difference was evidenced between the distribution of deceased and survivors of the genotype groups. Conclusions: In the present study, we found that heterozygous 4G/5G PAI-1 polymorphism is associated with critical or severe COVID-19 picture, and that FVL, MTHFR, FXIII, and prothrombin polymorphisms were not directly related to COVID-19 severity.