Avian caecal tonsils Anatomy and Histology, A species comparison in five Iraqi domesticated birds: Review article


The anatomy and histology of caecal tonsils among different birds’ species is vital to understanding the relationship between the physical structure and gut health. the current article intended to reviewing the morphological differences of cecum and caecal tonsils in five local domesticated birds An extensive search related to caeca and caecal tonsils anatomy and histology performed through researches and articles databases and internet indexes websites, then papers collected, analyzed and explained in this review Results revealed that caecum differ in shape, length, breadth, and symmetry among different birds’ species. also, the current review summarized the histological and cellular differences like the thickness of caecal wall, length and shape of tonsillar villi, lymphoid tissue organization, and cellular distribution.In conclusion: Understanding of the anatomy and histology of caecal tonsil in different birds’ species is crucial, due to the defense and protective role of caecal tonsils as apart of immune system and the morphological differences in birds may explain the immunological variation and the resistance of different bird types to some enteric infections. this works will provide a considerable assistance for biological and veterinary immunity researchers