A Critical Review of Optimization MANET Routing Protocols


The main challenges in routing protocols are node mobility, resource constraints, error-prone channel states, and problems with hidden and unprotected terminals. This article provides an overview of the main protocols, their problems, and ways to improve them. The cell phone allows communication between two moving units via mobile stations (MS), mobile units, and landing units. The term "mobile ad hoc network" (MANET) refers to a group of devices connecting and communicating. The military, law enforcement, and emergency services have quickly become interested in MANETS because they provide a high quality of service. Path loss (PL), one of the biggest problems in wireless communications, can be caused by multiple reflections from an obstacle or by the source of the signal being far from the destination on the network. Multipath propagation, path loss, and interference reduce the network's quality of service (QoS). The best route is added to a router's routing table using a dynamic routing protocol, and an alternate path is chosen when the primary route is unavailable.