Viral Vaccine Strategies


Background: Lately, many viruses emerged or re-emerged from the obscurity and became considerable threats to the global health, raising alarms concerning their constant epidemic transmissions. A very important public health concern of those viruses is the continuous circulation amongst the population of the immunologically naive, susceptible hosts. With each one of the new viral emergences or re-emergences, there appears a call for a fast development of a vaccination and induction of a protective immunity thus could be one of the most powerful tools for the prevention of that concern through conferring the protection to the endangered population. Vaccinations have been considered one of the crucial components of disease preventions towards the emerging virus infections due to the fact that, often, other options for the medical solutions are non-existent or limited. Whereas the conventional methods for developing a vaccination remain amenable to the emerging viruses, advents of the newest technologies in the molecular methods have a profound influence on the understanding of the biology of the viruses, as well as immune responses and methods of vaccination that are based upon attenuated, replicating, and non-replicating virus vector methods became beneficial platforms for vaccination. Conclusion: In combination with a continuous understanding in biology of the newly appearing viral illnesses, a many different recent strategies of vaccination have been developed for protecting from the re-emerging and new viruses could become possible. It was found that the biggest challenge in all strategies used in the preparation of viral vaccines is to find vaccines that have a low cost, are highly specialized, and have high efficiency for the purpose of confronting emerging viral diseases. In this paper we focus on different viral vaccines strategies.