The Influence Of Tool Geometry Of Friction Stir Welds On Mechanical Properties And Microstructure Of 2218-T72 Aluminum Alloy

Abstract

Friction stir welding (FSW) process is an emerging solid state joining process in which the material that is being welded does not melt. This process uses a non-consumable tool to generate frictional heat in the abutting surfaces. The welding parameters such as tool rotational speed, welding speed, axial force, etc., and tool pin profile play a major role in deciding the weld quality. In this investigation an attempt has been made to understand the effect of tool pin profile and rotation diameter on microstructure and mechanical properties in aluminum alloy (2218-T72). Five different tool pin profiles (straight cylindrical, threaded cylindrical, triangular, square, and threaded cylindrical with flat), with three different rotation diameter (3, 4, 5) mm. have been used to fabricate the joint. Effect of tool pin profile on mechanical properties of welded joints were investigated using different mechanical tests including (tensile, bending and microhardness tests). Microstructure characteristic during (FSW) process was studied and different welding joint were investigated using optical microscope. Based on the stir welding experiments conducted in this study the results show that aluminum alloy (2218-T72) can be welded using (FSW) process with maximum welding efficiency (86.95%) and (83.21%) in terms of ultimate tensile strength and bending force respectively using tool pin profile (threaded cylindrical with flat) with rotation diameter (5) mm, rotation speed (900rpm) and (30mm/min) welding speed.