The Effect of Nutrients and Their Role in the Progression of Periodontal Disease

Abstract

Periodontal disease is a common disease and may affect 90% of people, and is classified into gingivitis and periodontitis. The objective of this study was if the deficiency of some vitamins and trace elements affects the increase in exposure to periodontal diseases or to find out whether the periodontal disease can cause changes in the blood level of some nutrients and their role in reducing periodontal diseases. For this purpose, samples were taken from the University of Baghdad, College of Dentistry, Department of Periodontics, in the Periodontics clinic, including a group of 40 patients’ periodontitis, as well as another 40 patients’ gingivitis, and 40 healthy periodontium as control. There was no overall sickness in any of the groups. Periodontal clinical data were recorded, and serum parameter levels were assessed. The findings showed that plaque index, bleeding on probing, probing pocket depth, and clinical attachment loss were significantly greater (P< 0.01) in patients compared to the control. Levels of vitamin C and D were significantly decreased in patients compared with control (P<0.01), while levels of copper were high significant increase) in the patients compared to the control, and zinc show a highly significant increase in the periodontitis group. A negative correlation was found between vitamin D with BOP and PLI, in conclusion, low levels of C and D are associated with a risk factor for periodontal disease and contribute to the development of the disease, and high levels of copper and zinc play an important function as an indication of periodontal disease.