The value of fine needle aspiration cytology in the diagnosis of oral and jaw lesions in patients with plasma cell dyscrasias

Abstract

Background: Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) has been found to be very useful for the diagnosis of lesions as multiple myeloma (MM) and plasmacytomas in different parts of the body. The usefulness of such procedure has not yet been verified in the oral and maxillofacial region. This study was conducted to verify the value of FNAC in the diagnosis of oral and maxillofacial lesions in patients with plasma cell dyscrasias.Patients and methods: After clinical and radiological examination, FNAC was done by the use of 10 cc syringes with 22-23 gauge needles on 11 patients with lesions affecting the maxillofacial region. The smears stained with Leishman’s stain, to be examined microscopically.Results: Twenty eight patients were examined throughout 1.5 years period, 11 had soft tissue/or bone lesions affecting the maxillofacial region. 9 patients with MM and 2 had plasmacytoma. Of 9 patients with MM, the mandible was involved in 5 patients, 3 lesions affected the maxilla, and while in one patient the maxilla and mandible were both affected. Soft tissue lesions were seen in 6 patients. The results of FNAC showed that all lesions were due to involvement with myeloma cell infiltrates, with one exception of 2 osteolytic lesions which were due to odontogenic infection.Conclusion: FNAC is a very useful and safe procedure to diagnose different types of lesions affecting the oral cavity in patients with plasma cell dyscriasis