Suppression of Genotoxic Effects of Cyclophosphamide (CP) and Methotrexate (MTX) in Mice by Cardamom (Elelteria cardamomum) Fruits Extracts

Abstract

The present study aimed at investigating the inhibitory effect of cardamom (Elelteria cardamomum) towards the genotoxic effects of two drugs; Cyclophsphamide (CP) and Methotrexate (MTX) in mice. Four cytogenetic parameters were employed to achieve the aim. Those were mitotic index of bone marrow and germ cells, chromosomal aberrations, micronuclei test and sperm head abnormality assay.Cardamomum fruits were subjected to extraction with two solvents, water and ethanol. From each extracts, four gradually increased doses were evaluated for their toxicity. Doses from plant extracts with no toxic effect was chosen for drug-plant extract interaction was employed in (Balb/c mice). Genotoxicity of CP and MTX were also tested in mice.Cadamomum extracts showed no toxic effects at doses up to 50 mg/kg which were pictured by cell divisions of bone marrow and germ cells. While both drugs CP and MTX exert genotoxic effects at 100 and 3.25 mg/kg respectively. These plant and drug doses were applied for plant drug, and drug–plant interaction studies.The result revealed that the aqueous and alcoholic extracts of cardamomum exhibit a good protective activity. This was depicted by increasing the mitotic activity and reducing the chromosomal aberration, micronucleus, and sperm head abnormality-frequencies. The alcoholic extract was more potent in protection activity compared to equalize extract specially when it was proceeding the drug treatment.