Risk Factors of Small for Gestational Age Newborn Babies


ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND:The most common definition of Small for gestational age (SGA) newborns refers to a birth weight below the 10th percentile for gestational age. Intrauterine growth retardation(IUGR) may be caused by maternal, placental, or fetal factors. However, no underlying etiology can be identified in at least 40 % of SGA infants.OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the risk factors of SGA births in a sample of Iraqi term newborns.PATIENTS& METHODS:A case control study extended over eight months from Dec. first 2007 to July 31st, 2008 . In this study, 100 SGA newborns &100 control newborns evaluated within the first day of life.This study was performed in delivery rooms &neonatal special care birth unit in Baghdad Teaching Hospital in Medical City . Data were collected by direct interview of the mothers. Data included different variables related to mothers & neonates.RESULTS:There was a significant relationship between SGA births & maternal urinary tract infections (OR=5.231, P<0.0001) & with antepartum hemorrhage (8.6 time risk ,0R=8.609, P=0.0349).The majority of SGA newborns(15%) occurred in multiple pregnancies (OR=17.471, P=0.0003). SGA newborns were more common among non employed mothers (OR=2.100, P=0.0355).Also SGA newborns had significant relationships with mothers not attended antenatal care (OR=3.648, P=0.0001),those with maternal history of SGA births (OR=15.474, P<0.0001) , those mothers with anemia (OR=5.532, P<0.0001) & lastly with mothers suffering from hypertension (OR=8.877, P<0.0001).CONCLUSION:There was significant relationship between SGA births and :Multiple pregnancies& maternal history of SGA births, mothers suffering from hypertension& maternal history of APH and maternal anemia& UTI, mother not attended antenatal clinic & with no employment.