Acute Renal Failure in Neonates


ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND:Acute renal failure (ARF) is a common problem in admitted neonates in intensive care units. In most patients ARF accompanies with a predisposing factor such as sepsis, heart failure, perinatal asphyxia or prematurity.OBJECTIVE:This study was to determine the causes and outcome of ARF in hospitalized newbornPATIENTS AND METHODS:In a descriptive cross sectional study we evaluated neonates with ARF who had been hospitalized in Children welfare teaching Hospital from july 2009 to july2010.RESULTS:There were 50 cases diagnosed as ARF in 2500 hospitalized neonates (2%).The male to female ratio in patients with ARF was 3.16:1.Most of involved patients were term 35(70%).The prevalence of renal, pre renal and post renal causes of ARF was 29 (58%), 15(30%) and 6(12%) respectively.The most common predisposing factors for ARF in our study was sepsis 28(56%), genitorenal anomalies 15(30%), perinatal asphyxia 3(6%), drug toxicity in 3(6%)One patient (2%) had respiratory distress syndrome. Among admitted neonates with ARF 6(12%) died and it was significantly higher in patients with sepsis (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: ARF is a common emergency entity , physicians play a critical role in recognizing early ARF, preventing iatrogenic injury, and reversing the course of ARF.