The Role of Leptin and Insulin Hormones in the Pregnant Women Serum Infected of Diabetic Mellitus and its Histological Structure Effects on the Placenta and Umbilical Cord in Erbil City

Abstract

Diabetes in pregnancy is associated with a derangement of hormones, cytokines, metabolites and growth factors in the maternal and foetal compartment. These may influence placental and umbilical cord, growth and histological structure that are tightly regulated in time and space. The blood and placenta and umbilical cord samples were collected in Hawler Maternity Hospital from (70) diabetic (Type-II) pregnant women and (30) healthy pregnant women directly at parturition. The placenta prepared for histo-pathological examination, while the serum used for both leptin and insulin estimation in both diabetic and non diabetic pregnant women.Our results showed linear significant increase in leptin and insulin levels would all support the increased incidence of placental-related complications observed in diabetic pregnancy witch revealed immaturity of placentae villi, edema of the intima, and intervillous fibrosis in addition of ischemia of the villi. While umbilical cords sections represented thickening parietal layer and vacuolation. So these are found to improve the specificity of diabetic (Type-II) screening tests.