Leptin Level in Type I diabetic patients

Abstract

Background: Serum leptin levels reflect the amount of body fat. However several studies suggest that insulin may also regulate serum leptin levels, especially those newly diagnosed patient with type 1diabetes (treated with insulin). Aim of the study: The aim of the study was to test the leptin level in newly diagnosed children with type 1diabetes and its level after institution of insulin therapy.Subjects and Materials: Thirty children with new onset type I diabetes were studied. Serum leptin levels (ELIZA) were measured at presentation before insulin therapy was started and at 3 months of follow-up. Those patients were compared. with thirty healthy children match for age and body mass index.Results: The results showed significantly low levels of serum leptin for the diabetic patients before insulin in comparison to its level for both diabetic patients (3 months of insulin therapy) and the control group. [(4.1 ± 0.5), (6.0 ± 0.4), (6.9 ± 0.2) ng/ml) P<0.005, 0.05 respectively)]. In addition to a significant increase in body wt. and BMI for the diabetic patients after insulin therapy (3 months) in comparison to their results before initiation of insulin therapy [(39.7 ± 3.1), (35.2 ± 2.9) kg], [(20.1 ± 0.8),(17.7 ± 0.4) kg/m2)] (P<0.005. 0.05) respectively. The study shows also a positive correlation between serum leptin level and BMI for those patients after 3 months post treatment (r=0.6, p=0.04). Conclusion: Serum leptin levels are low in newly diagnosed children with type I diabetes, after 3 months of insulin therapy circulating levels increase and became comparable to levels found in healthy control subjects. It remains to be determined whether this is solely due to insulinization or is also the result of nutritional replenishment and changes in fat cells metabolism. Key words: Leptin, HbA1c, insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (Type 1).