Association between Serum Sialic Acid and Some Trace Elements in Type 2 Diabetic patients


Background: Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder of multiple etiologies characterized by chronic hyperglycemia with disturbances of carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism.Objective: This study was designed to evaluate the status of serum total sialic acid (TSA), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), magnesium (Mg), and manganese (Mn) levels, and their correlation with each other in type 2 DM patients.Materials & Methods: A total study subject of 80 were examined, including 52 patients with type 2 DM diagnosed and treated in the National Diabetes Center, Al-Mustansirya University, and 28 healthy individuals as a control group matched for age, sex, and body mass index (BMI). For the study, six groups were formed, categorized as follows; Group1 (G1): 28 male and female control subjects; Group2 (G2): 52 male and female type 2 DM patients; Group3 (G3): 13 male control subjects; Group4 (G4): 24 male type 2 DM patients; Group5 (G5): 15 female control subjects; Group6 (G6): 28 female type 2 DM patients. All subjects had not taken vitamin or mineral supplements for at least 2 weeks before sampling; Blood samples were drawn after an overnight fasting for the determination of serum glucose, HbA1c, TSA, Zn, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, and total cholesterol (TC).Results: It was found that total diabetic patients had higher TSA, Fe, Cu/Zn, and Fe/Zn levels, and lower Zn, Cu, Mg, Mn, and Cu/Fe levels when comparing with control groups. Although, it was found that serum TSA, Fe, Cu/Zn, and Fe/Zn levels were higher and Zn, Cu, Mg, Mn, and Cu/Fe levels were lower in male and female diabetic patients than in the respective control subjects, there was only a positive correlation between Fe and Mn levels in male type 2 DM patients. There was a negative correlation between Fe-Cu, Cu-Fe/Zn, and Mn-Cu/Zn levels, and positive correlation between TSA-Mg in total diabetic patients. There was a positive correlation between TSA-Mg, and Zn-Cu levels while a negative correlation between TSA-Cu/Zn, Fe-Cu, Mn-Cu, and Zn-TC levels in female diabetic patients.Conclusion: Our results suggest that TSA and selected trace elements Zn, Cu, Fe, Mg, and Mn levels have altered in type 2 DM; moreover, they have interactive connection with diabetes mellitus. There are also many sex-related positive or negative correlations between the altered parameters in DM patients. These parameters might have a diagnostic role in patients with diabetes mellitus.Keywords: diabetes, Sialic acid, traces elements, zinc, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese.