The Iraqi Western Desert is rich in mineral deposits and industrial rocks. Important deposits were identified including phosphorite, kaolinitic claystone, montmorillonite –palygorskite claystone, quartz-sand, bauxite, flint clay, porcelanite, uranium, ironstone, heavy minerals sandstone, feldspathic sandstone, limestone and dolostone. Most of these deposits are restricted in occurrence to the Western Desert. All of these mineral deposits and industrial rocks are sedimentary in origin including marine and continental deposits. They range in age from Permocarboniferous to Pleistocene, occurring mostly as bedded stratiform deposits with some exceptions such as karst bauxites and flint clays. The formation of the mineral deposits and industrial rocks in the Western Desert was controlled by paleogeographic and climatic factors. Tectonic and structural factors were important in some cases. The type, specifications and reserves of these mineral deposits provide a very promising potential for future development of this region.