STUDYING YIELD POTENTIAL AND GENOTYPE – ENVIRONMENT INTERACTION ANALYSIS OF GRAIN YIELD FOR DIFFERENT DURUM (Triticum turgidum var durum) Cultivars*

Abstract

Abstract:Forty–nine durum wheat cultivars from the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT) presented the international nursery IDYT 29, in addition to the locally cultivated Gerardo cultivar were grown in randomized complete block design with three replications at Al-Tuwaitha (15km, south of Baghdad) and Al-Latifyia (40km, north of Babylon) for three successive seasons ( 2004 / 2005 – 2006 / 2007 ) . The objectives of this study were to evaluate the agronomic performance and yield potential including the genotype-environment interaction of the 50 cultivars. Genotype by environment interactions was analyzed using AMMI analyses, to asses which cultivars are suitable for release and/or to introduce in further breeding program.Grain yield was generally higher at Al-Tuwaitha than Al-Latifyia, whereas, 1000 kernel weight was the higher at Al-Latifyia. No significant differences between locations for days to heading and plant height were observed. It is obvious that variation for traits under investigation affected by cultivars and its interactions. This may be due to the difference in genetic and environmental effects, which is considered to be a major factor affecting grain yield. AMMI analysis showed that principal component analysis (PCA) interpreted about 94% of genotype-environment interaction that was covered by the first four principal components. PCA1 covered 37.67% of total interaction variance, which is in agreement with ANOVA results.Cultivars presented cultivar No. 32 and 13 (MINMUS/COMP DUCK 2//CHAM3 CD98225-A-3Y-040M=040YRC-6M-0Y and SN TURK MI83-84 375/NIGRIS _5//TANTLO _1CD94483-A-3Y-040M-030Y-2PAP-0Y), respectively showed the good stability performance, while the cultivar No. 10 (THB/CEP7780//2*MUSK_4 CD93683-7Y-040M-030Y-2PAP-0Y) gave the highest grain yield across environments. Twenty-six of durum wheat cultivars out yielded about 5002-5721 kg/ha of grain yield.