Background: Lead is one of the first metals to have served mankind. It was among the earliest metals used by man and was known to the early Egyptians and Hebrews.Objectives: To study the epidemiology of Lead poisoning regarding age, sex, areas of distribution, type offeeding, clinical manifestations, laboratory findings and the outcome. Methods: Fifty patients with lead poisoning were studied in Al-Mansour (Children's welfare Teaching Hospital), Medical City, Baghdad, were included in the study.Results: Forty five (90%) children were under one year of age. Twenty nine (58%) children were males. Forty four (88%) children were from Anbar Governorate. Thirty five (70%) were from rural areas. Six (12%) infants were solely breast fed. Forty (80%) children presented with convulsions. Twenty six (52%) children their haemoglobin levels were (5.1 - 9)g/dl. Basophilic stippling seen in (38%) and urinary delta ALA were raised >4mg/L in all children. Lead lines were seen in (54%) of the children wrist X-rays.Conclusions: Lead poisoning is a major problem in Al-Anbar Governorate, especially Qaeem region, so infants and children in this area should be screened. Estimation of lead levels at different sites of the river and other water sources, soil, animals, agricultural products and all types of alkohl. Lead poisoning should be suspected in any infant with unexplained encephalopathy and particularly if resident in Al-Anbar Governorate and all members of the family of the affected baby should be screened for lead poisoning.Keywords: poisoning, lead, children, Baghdad, Iraq.