Histopathological evaluation of oral lichen planus

Abstract

Background: Oral lichen planus( OLP) is a chronic inflammatory disorder affecting mucosal surfaces , which cancause an important discomfort to the patients . To highlight the most characteristic histopathological findings of OLPwhich are useful in making a diagnosis of OLP. In addition, by studying the association of these findings it was hopedthat information about pathogenic mechanism would be obtained.Material and Methods : In this study a retrospective analyses of 194 cases of OLP being diagnosed at Oral andMaxillofacial Pathology Department, College of Dentistry , were obtained over a period of 26 years , spanning from1985- 2010 . We analyzed the age and sex of the patients, clinical type of lichen planus, site and differenthistopathological finding, comparing them with each others.Results: (61%) of the patients are female and (39 %) are males, with an average age for both sexes (49.75 years).The most frequent clinical form is reticular, presented in (78%) of cases, and the most common location is buccalmucosa, presented in (60%) of the patients. The mononuclear infiltration beneath and adjacent to the epithelium,parakeratosis and degeneration of the basal layer of the epithelium were consistent features. Linear regressionanalysis revealed a positive correlation between basal degeneration and mononuclear infiltration and an inversecorrelation between the mononuclear infiltrate and the parakeratosis.Conclusion: Linear regression analysis of the parameters studied provided partial support for a cell- mediatedimmune mechanism