Caries - Severity in Relation to Salivary Constituents Among Down's Syndrome Children in Comparison to Normal Children


Background: Considerable attention has been given to the degree to which children with Down's syndrome are susceptible to dental caries. These observations have been questioned by many researchers whether they are inherently resistant to caries or not. Aim of study: Was to measure the changes in the level of calcium, phosphorus, sodium, potassium and urea in stimulated saliva and their relations to severity of dental caries among Down's syndrome children in comparison to normal children. Materials and Methods: Fifty institutionalized children with Down's syndrome (study group) and 50 normal children (control group) aged 7-10 years old were included in this study. D1-4S and d1-4s were assessed according to Muhlemann's criteria (1976) and stimulated whole saliva samples were collected and chemically analyzed to determine the concentrations of the following constituents: Ions of calcium, sodium, potassium by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer as well as salivary phosphorus and urea by using colorimetric method. All data were analyzed using SPSS version 13. Results: The D1-4S and d1-4s scores were significantly lower in Down's syndrome children than the control group (P< 0.01, P< 0.001 respectively). Salivary sodium, potassium and urea were significantly higher in Down's syndrome children (P< 0.001), while salivary phosphorus concentration was noticed to be lower among study group compared to control group (P> 0.05).Conclusion: This study suggests that children with Down's syndrome presents higher levels of salivary calcium, sodium, potassium and urea which may explain a lower caries severity compared to normal children