Some Immunological Aspects of Chronic Hepatitis B Virus Infection among Iraqi Patients


Abstract Background: Hepatitis B virus HBV infection is a serious public health problem in Iraq, and HBV is a major cause of acute & chronic hepatitis.Objectives: The main target of this study is to estimate and evaluate the role of Interleukin -1α and IL-8, in addition of the T helper cells CD4+ and cytotoxic – T-cells CD 8+ in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) compared with acute hepatitis B patients and apparently healthy individuals. Patients and methods: This study was conducted from May 2010 to October 2010 in teaching laboratories of Medical City. involved 60 patients, (30) patients with acute HBV infection (22 male , 8 female) and (30) patients with chronic HBV infection (21 male, 9 female) referred to gastroenterology and hepatology teaching hospital & medical consultant department of Baghdad Teaching hospital ,compared with 20 apparently healthy individuals. Enzyme linked Immunosorbent assay technique (ELISA) was performed to estimate (IL- 1α and IL-8) in 60 patients compared with (20) healthy control group .T cells (CD4+) and T (CD8+) cells were estimated by using indirect immunofluorescent assay ( IFA ) .Results: The most incidence of HBV infection in males is more than in females with significant differences p = 0.0001. The mean level of (IL- 1α and IL-8) increases in patients with (CHB) with significant differences compared with acute & healthy control groups (P = 0.001).The ratio of CD4+ / CD 8+ T cells was significantly decreased (P= 0.0001) in CHB patients compared with acute hepatitis B patients, and healthy control group.Conclusions: The result of this study indicates that the cytokines (IL-1α –IL8) play an important role in the pathogenesis of chronic HBV infection. Also this study confirms that T (CD4+) cells and T (CD 8+) cells play an important role in host defense against HBV.Keywords: Chronic HBV infection, ILα - IL8, TCD4+ cells, TCD 8+ cells.