EFFECTS OF WATER STRESS AND PLANT DENSITY ON YIELD AND WATER USE EFFICIENCY OF SAFFLOWER (CARTHAMUS TINCTORIUS L.) AT GROWTH STAGES OF PLANT

Abstract

In order to evaluate of water stress at different growth stages and spacingbetween rows on yield, yield components and Water Use Efficiency ofsafflower (Cv. Mees ), an experiment was conducted in experimental field cropdepartment-college of agriculture -University of Baghdad during the twosuccessive winter seasons of 2008- 2009, 2009-2010. The experiment wasconducted as factorial with randomized complete blocks design with threereplicates. The first factor were assigned to the four irrigation levels (irrigation,none irrigation at branching, flowering buds and flowering stages ) and Thesecond factor were allocated to the different plant spacing on row (75 and 100cm). The results showed that irrigation treatment affected on branches per plant,heads per plant, 300- seeds weight, dry matter weight, seed weight per plant,total seed yield, harvest index and water use efficiency. The non-irrigation atflowering stages had the highest branches per plant (24.15 and 24.53branch/plant). Non-irrigation at flower buds stage gave highest number headsper plant (46.73 and 45.03 head/plant), dry matter weight per plant (103.70 and105.05gm/plant), seed weight per plant (52.02 and 50.57 gm/plant), total seedyield (2366.99 and 2279.73 kg/ha.) and water use efficiency (0.61 and 0.58kg/m3) then our traits .The highest 300- seeds weight was 14.67 and 14.50 gm innone irrigation at branching in the two seasons respectively. Plant spacingaffected heads per plant, seed per head, 300- seeds weight, dry matter weightper plant, seed weight per plant, total seed yield and harvest index .100cm planthad the highest heads per plant (40.93 and 41.10 head/plant), seed per head(30.24 and 30.71 seed/head), 300- seeds weight, (13.05 and 12.90 gm), drymatter weight per plant (93.67 and 100.18 gm/plant), seed weight per plant2013 عبد الحسن و محمد ، 131 - 118 : ( 1 ) مجلة ديالى للعلوم الزراعية ، 5131(47.23 and 51.14 gm/plant) total seed yield (1889.30 and 2045.60 kg/ha.) andharvest index (50.36 and 51.04%) respectively. Interaction between irrigationregime and plant spacing was significant effect heads per plant, dry matterweight per plant, seed weight per plant, total seed yield and harvest index.Highest seeds yield/ha. was obtained from non-irrigation at flower buds stageplanting at 100cm. highly positive correlations were found between plant seedweight and head per plant and seed per head in both seasons.