EFFECT OF CAPILTULUM DIAMETER AND SEED POSITION ON SEED QUALITY OF SUNFLOWER

Abstract

Irregular flowering in capiltulum or difference in capiltulum diameter of sunflower may leads to difference in weight and full duration of seeds, which affects on the quality of seeds later. An experiment was conducted at the laboratory of seed technology, Dept. of Field Crop, College of Agriculture, University of Baghdad during the year 2012. The aim was to determine the effect of capitulum diameter (smaller than 15, 16-20, 21-25, 26-30, 31-35 and bigger than 36 cm) resulted from different plant populations, and seed position at the capitulum (peripheral, middle and central) on seed quality of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) cv. Shumoos. Results revealed that there were significant effects of capitulum diameter and seed positions on all traits. An increase in capitalum diameter from smaller than 15cm to bigger than 36cm gave the highest averages of seed weight (68.6g for 500 seeds), kernel weight (42.5 g for 500 kernels), seeds long (18.1mm), seed width (8.08 mm), kernel long (12.4 mm) and kernel width (5.6 mm). Those results caused the highest averages of standard germination (88.6%), plumule length (7.81 cm), seedling weight (10.7 g) and seedling dry weight (0.63 g). Seeds were located at peripheral position showed superior in all traits except kernel percentage. We recommend collecting seed from big capitulum or from peripheral position of capitulum for agricultural use.