Evaluation of antimicrobial and anticancer activity of Rosemary Rosmarinus oficinalis leaves extracts on pathogenic bacteria and cancer cell lines


The present study was carried out to detect the active constitutions extracted from Rosmarinus oficinalis leaves by 70% methanol, the dried weight of aqueous extract (F1) were 12%(w:w) contain polyphenols represented by phenols, flavonoids and coumarins as a major compounds , while the dried weight of organic extract, [chloroform(F2)] was 2.8%(w:w) represented as terpenoids, tannins and coumarins detected by qualitative chemical analysis. Antimicrobial activity of Polyphenols and terpenoids were tested against four pathogenic bacteria isolates including: Escherichia coli; Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus cereus ,which grown on Mueller Hinton agar (MHA) plates and then treated with different concentrations of rosemary extract (F1) and (F2) ranged from 0.15-1.2mg/ml, the results revealed that the higher inhibition zone obtained by F1 were 35mm in S. aureus, 24mm in B. cereus and lowest inhibition were 16mm in E. coli and P. aeruginosa at concentration 1.2mg/ml, and the inhibition were depends on extract concentrations. The MIC value of F1 was 600 µg/ml against S. aureus, 1200 µg/ml against B. cereus and 2400 µg/ml against E. coli and P. aeruginosa, while the MICS values of F2 were 2400 µg/ml against S. aureus and P. aeruginosa, and 4800 µg/ml against E. coli and B. cereus. Furthermore calculating index fractional inhibitory concentration (∑FIC) of rosemary extracts (F1 or/and F2), the ∑FICA ranged from synergistic to additional on E. coli and P. aeruginosa respectively, antagonistic on S. aueras and B. cereus, while the ∑FICB index showed synergistic effects on all tested organisms except the additional effect on P. aeurginosa on the basis of resultant zone of inhibition. The anticancer effects of (F1) were used on three cell lines, human larynx epidermoid carcinoma (Hep-2), mammary adenocarcinoma (AMN-3), rhabdomyosarcoma (RD) and one normal cell line, Rat embryo fibroblast (REF) at different concentrations ranged from 62.5-1000 µg/ml. The highest inhibition rate (IR) was 82.41%, 85% on RD, 52.62%, 75.48% on Hep2, 39.14% and 49.75% on AMN-3 at concentrations 500 and 1000µg/ml after 72h exposure time respectively, while IR of Ref cell line exhibit low inhibition rate ranging from 5.8 to 15.7% after 72h in the same conditions.