Assessment of transforming growth factor beta one (TGF- β1) immunohistochemical (IHC) expression profile in the gingival tissue of patients with different forms of periodontal diseases

Abstract

Background: This study evaluate the immunohistochemical expression profile of transforming growth factor beta-1 ininflamed gingival tissue of patients with gingivitis and chronic periodontitis compared to healthy subjects and,determine the correlation between this cytokine and the clinical periodontal parameters, intensity of inflammationand chronic periodontitis severity.Materials and methods: Gingival tissue specimens were taken from 23 chronic periodontitis patients, 20 gingivitispatients and 20 periodontally healthy subjects. The periodontal status was evaluated by dichotomous measurementsof the clinical periodontal parameters (PLI, GI, BOP, PPD, CAL). The gingival specimens were fixed immediately in 10%formalin and processed routinely into paraffin blocks for further immunohistochemical analysis.Results: A highly significant statistical difference was observed between the study groups regarding the PLI ,GI ,thepercentage of bleeding on probing sites and the intensity of inflammation .TGF-β1 expression profile statisticalanalysis showed a high statistical significant difference among the study groups , A highly significant statisticaldifference was found between the PPD Scores while a significant statistical difference was revealed among the CALScores when the expression profile of TGF-β1 was compared.TGF-β1 was positively correlated with the clinicalperiodontal parameters (PLI, GI, and BOP) as well as with the intensity of inflammation in the three study groups. Inchronic periodontitis group a highly significant positive linear correlation between the PPD and CAL with the TGF-β1expression profile.Conclusions: TGF-β1 expression profile showed variations as the destructive character of the periodontal diseasechanged. Therefore, it could be proposed that TGF-β1 might contribute both to inflammatory regulation andremodeling events during periodontal disease