Effect of orthodontic tooth movement on salivary levels of Interleukin-1beta, Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha, and Creactive protein


Background: Orthodontic force is considered to stimulate cells in the periodontium to release many mediators suchas cytokines which play a responsible role for periodontal and alveolar bone remodeling, bone resorption and newbone deposition. Aim of this study was carried out to estimate changes of the (interleukin-one beta, tumor necrosisfactor – alpha and C-reactive protein) levels in unstimulated whole saliva during the leveling stage of orthodontictooth movement.Materials and methods: The sample consisted of thirty adult patients (12 males and 18 females) with ages ranges (19-23) years. Each sample had Class I and Class II malocclusion dental classification and required bilateral extraction oftheir maxillary first premolars, underwent a session of professional oral hygiene and received oral hygiene instructionsbefore and during the period of study, one month later fixed orthodontic appliance were placed in the upper archby using 0.014 nickel titanium arch wire. The unstimulated whole saliva was taken from each sample immediatelybefore placement of the appliance (baseline), and at (after1hour, after one week and after two week) followingplacement of the fixed orthodontic appliance. In addition the plaque index and gingival index were recordedduring the interval periods of this study to assess oral cleanliness. The interleukin – one beta and tumor necrosis factoralphawere determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, while the C-reactive protein was determined bylatex agglutination.Results: The results of the present study found the mean value of both salivary (interleukin-one beta and tumornecrosis factor -alpha) were highest at (after1hour) followed by at (after one week) then at (after two week) thanthe baseline with highly statistical significant differences (P< 0.01) among males, females and total samples, inaddition there were no statistical significant differences between males and females (P>0.05). While the mean valuesof C-reactive protein were higher at (after 1hour) only with highly significant differences (P< 0.01) among femalesand total samples while only significant difference (P<0.05) for males, in addition there were no statistical significantdifferences between males and females. Regarding the correlation between salivary (interleukin – one beta andtumor necrosis factor -alpha), there were positive correlation between them at all periods of study. Moreover therewere positive correlation between salivary (interleukin – one beta and tumor necrosis factor -alpha) and salivary Creactiveprotein. On the other hand there were no association between the salivary (interleukin – one beta andtumor necrosis factor -alpha and C-reactive protein) and clinical parameter (plaque index and gingival index).Conclusion: From this clinical study we conclude that orthodontic force induces increasing the levels of (interleukin –one beta, tumor necrosis factor -alpha, C-reactive protein) in unstimulated whole saliva during orthodontic toothmovement.