The Local Relationship Between Climate and Human Characteristics and the Desertification and its Effects in Iraq


The phenomenon of desertification is considered as one of the phenomena that affect mankind and its various activities especially the agricultural activities directly or indirectly in such a manner that it became a part of the great challenges which face most of the state all over the world especially those of the of dry or semi dry climate such as Iraq . According to the most modern definition as within the agreement of the United Nations to struggle the phenomenon of desertification it means (the earth getting worse in the desert and semi desert areas and in the dry and semi wet areas caused by various reasons represented by climate changes and human activities) . This phenomenon became a major problem because of its relationship with the life of the population through its direct effect to the elements of the environment in which the population live in two important sides . The first is represented in being of important effect on (The source of food for the population) While the second side is represented by its effects on the pollution of the atmosphere . In the first side , this phenomenon appeared through changing wide areas which were the most fertile areas and of food economic income have changed into areas which cannot be cultivated first and secondly their products diminish . The second side of the effect of this phenomenon is the pollution of the atmosphere . The increase of the areas which suffer from desertification and become part of the value of gained energy from the solar radiation and the increase of the temperature and other climate changes either by the green house warming and the heat quantity as well as the pollution of the atmosphere with the dust of the change of the climate with man's various activities . Because this phenomenon became one of the important problems which threaten large areas of the agricultural areas in Iraq , we , as geographical researchers are required to study this problem deeply to know the real reasons of it and to take the necessary procedures to limit its effects . This can be done through dealing with this problem of its theoretical and achieving sides and through the meetings which discuss this problem in order to find solutions of its reasons and the results which accompany it not of the agricultural and irrigation sides only which were previously known but also the problems of the population such as the diseases and other environmental pollution . In order to study this phenomenon this was studied in three parts : The first part dealt with the concept of desertification and its reasons through its effects , reflections and the cases of desertification . While the second one concentrated on the elements of desertification especially the natural elements including (the climate changes of all kinds , erosion of all kinds as well as the various human elements) .The third one concentrates on the nature of the relationship be4tween the natural and the human characteristics which were dealt with in the second part and their local relationship with desertification in Iraq through studying the effect of the climate changes in Iraq and tracing it on the climate elements (solar radiation , temperatures , the pressure of the atmosphere , the characteristics of the winds , the characteristics of the rain) for the period (1951 – 2009) , and showing the changes which accompanied the climate elements with all the climate calculations , maps and diagrams as well as concentrating on the severe climate phenomena accompanying these climate changes such as (sandstorms , rising dust , hanging dust) and their effect on this problem . The research also assured in this part on the geographical distribution in the desert areas in Iraq and the effect on the present agricultural situation and the procedures which can be depended on to solve this problem and to limit its present effects and what may accompany it in the future.