The penitentiary Direction in the Najaf journalist ( 1921 – 1958)

Abstract

The intellectual movement in Najaf had witnessed considerable development. It was considered as a source of inspiration for the intellectual movement that was witnessed by Iraq as well as a center for the spiritual movement in Iraq. It is worthy of note that the press hadinfiltrated into the heart of the political, social and religion life. No view or belief would be disseminated, nor would a political or revolutionary party succeed, without the support and care of the press. No political or social system would fail, nor would a reform or economic project collapse without the opposition of the press, which had played a paramount role in the dissemination of reform views. It had also attempted to improve theprevalent situation through observing the negative cases and suggesting solutions for such cases.The press in Najaf had devoted a great deal of attention toeducation, particularly because education and its curricula constitute the basis for the development of any nation. The calls of the press in this direction came as an answer to the policy of thecolonists through which they targeted the Iraqi people by depriving them from knowledge and science, by excluding education from the requirements of national development. The press in Najaf had paid sufficient attention to its purposeful andconstructive kind of criticism to the most salient negative phenomena from which education had suffered. The aim of the press was to improve the prevalentsituation. Eradicating illiteracy and fighting ignorance represented the aspiration of most journalists, even when this would cause them to be exposed to some life-threatening risks. The press in Najaf had realized the fact that knowledge is the basis for civilization and culture, and that illiteracyis the monster of ignorance and backwardness, behind which a number of social, political and economic reasons lie. However, the press had endeavored to, in the face of this social challenge, publish many articles calling forfighting illiteracy which had become a major characteristic of the Iraqi society. The percentage of illiterate people was more than 90% of the total population up to 1946.