Natural fluoride Content of Drinking Water in Two District Areas in Iraq and Yemen (A comparative study).

Abstract

Aims: To determine and compare the prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis in two district areas: Iraq and Yemen, in relation to age and sex for students aged 13–16 years old. Materials and methods: the study was conducted among 904 students of both countries. Five hundred and seventy two students from Iraq (Sinjar province): 334 males and 238 females. Three hundred and thirty two students: 173 males and 159 females, from Yemen (Thamar province); aged 13–16 years old were randomly selected from intermediate and secondary schools who had lived since birth in two different areas with concentration of fluoride in drinking water. Sinjar with high concentration (2.05–2.22 ppm), Thamar with moderate concentration (1.8–2.2 ppm) by the use of Dean index (1934) to assess dental fluorosis. Results: the study had shown that the prevalence of dental flourosis in Sinjar province was 52.1%, 63.53% within students and teeth respectively was much higher than Thamar province which was 16.99%, 30.23% within students and teeth respectively; ranging from questionable, very mild forms for all age groups, while for Thamar it was ranging from very mild to moderate with significant sex difference for individuals (females reported less prevalence than males) for both provinces for the first three degrees of flourosis at P<0.001, P< 0.05. The percent age of severity for Sinjar was much higher than Thamar province which increased significantly with increasing age at P<0.001, P<0.01,and P< 0.05. Also the distribution of severity of frequency was much higher in Sinjar than Thamar with highest percentage in upper and lower posterior teeth (75%, 72%) at P<0.001. The community flourosis index for Sinjar was 1.62 (moderate) while for Thamar province was 3.05 for these age groups (very marked). Conclusions: prevalence of dental flourosis increased infrequently with age in Sinjar while systematically in Thamar with sex difference (females reported less percentage than males).