Colonoscopy at the National Center for Early Detection of Cancer: Evaluating Indications and Diagnostic Yield

Abstract

ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND: Colonoscopic procedure is an accepted modality for the evaluation of colonic disease and an accurate procedure in the workup and screening of patients with lower gastrointestinal symptoms. The clinical spectrum and diagnostic yield depend upon the indications for the procedure.OBJECTIVE:To identify the yield of the major indications for the procedure, and the pattern of colon pathology in study population.Study design and Setting: A retrospective study was conducted over a period of 6 months extending From 18th November 2011 to 18th May 2012 at the National Center for Early Detection of Cancer by reviewing the records of 224 colonoscopy examinations which were done in the center between January 2010 and December 2012.RESULTS: The patients comprised 66 females (29.4%) and 158 males (70.6%) and their mean ages was (46.6) years. There were 114 patients (50.9%) who were aged less than 50 years. Complete examination to the caecum was possible in 114 cases (50.9%).Pathological findings were identified in 127patients (56.7%). The diagnostic yield of patients referred for lower abdominal pain and alternation in bowel habit was low, of (29.72%) and (46.66%), respectively. The yield was high for those with lower gastrointestinal bleeding (71.15%), diarrhea (61.9%), category 'others' (65%). The diagnostic pattern showed that non-specific colitis and double colonic lesions were identified in (29.13%), and (16.53%) respectively. Colonic cancer was diagnosed in 19patients (14.96%), ulcerative colitis in 9patients (7.08%), polyps were detected in13patients (10.23%), and internal hemorrhoids in17patients (13.38%).CONCLUSION: The highest diagnostic yield of colonoscopy procedure was for lower gastrointestinal bleeding and diarrhea and the main pattern of colonic pathology was nonspecific colitis and double colonic lesions.