Role of Leptin in Hyperthyroidism

Abstract

Clinical hyperthyroidism is caused by the effects of excess thyroid hormone and can be triggered by different disorders. Hyperthyroidism presents with multiple symptoms that vary according to the age of the patient, duration of illness, magnitude of hormone excess and presence of comorbid conditions. Leptin is mainly synthesized and secreted by adipocyte. In addition to the white adipose tissue it can also be produced by brown adipose tissue, placenta, ovaries, skeletal muscle, stomach, mammary epithelial cells, bone marrow, pituitary and liver. It is a messenger of satiety from the fat cells to the brain, a regulator of insulin and glucose metabolism and plays a role in energy balance and body weight by neuroendocrine mechanisms.This study was performed at the laboratories of Biochemistry Department, College of Medicine, University of Babylon. The collection of samples was conducted during the period from the of June 2013 till September 2013 at Al Hussain teaching hospital in Karblaa, including 48 patients diagnosed as hyperthyroidism with age ranging from 19-55 years. In addition to 30 apparently healthy individuals were taken as a control group. Measurement of serum T3, T4, TSH and leptin were done for all patients and control groups. Serums T3, T4, TSH were done by VIDAS technique with principle of combines a one-step enzyme immunoassay sandwich method with a final fluorescent detection (ELFA), while the serum leptin done by ELISA technique with principle of Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay.The mean age of patient was (38.25± 7.63) whereas the mean of control group was (36.90 ± 5.67) with no statistical differences. Majority of studied patients was female (75.6%). Body Mass Index (BMI) for patients group was (20.95 ± 3.59), majority (48.7%) were underweight. There were significant statistical differences between the mean of Leptin of patients (5.48± 2.72) ng/ml and the mean of control group (35.59 ± 10.74) ng/ml. Low level of leptin might be the responsible cause of increased appetite in hyperthyroidism patient.