Identification of bacterial agentsand antimicrobial susceptibility of neonatal sepsis with patient,s outcome


Background : Sepsis neonataroum is an important factor for morbidity and mortality in neonates. The incidence of neonatal bacterial sepsis depends on geographic area and may vary from country to country as well as within the same country. Objective: To identify the percentage of neonatal septicemia confirmed by positive blood cultures among 664 neonates admitted in neonatal care unit, and to identify the bacterial agents causing early and late neonatal sepsis and their antimicrobial susceptibility, and the outcome from neonatal septicemia. Patients and methods: The total number of patients(with clinical signs and symptoms suggesting sepsis) collected from neonatal care unit of AL-Kadimiya Teaching hospital from the 1st of January to the end of october 2011 were 664 neonates, and only 105 neonates who show signs and symptoms suggestive of septicemia that were confirmed by a positive blood culture were enrolled in this study. Data were collected include :Gestational age, Birth weight , Gender, Onset of sepsis, Place of delivery and also we followed up the subjects and recorded the outcome till discharge. Results: In this prospective study and from 664 neonate were admitted (total number of admission), positive blood cultures were obtained for 105 neonates (15.8%). Gram negative bacteria were the commonest causative agent in both early (66.7%) and late (56.9%) onset sepsis. Among neonates with sepsis, 33 patients (31.4%) had early onset and 72 patient (68.6%) had late-onset neonatal sepsis. The susceptibility of the isolated causative agent to selected antibiotics were the same in early and late onset sepsis. Over 70% of gram negative bacilli were resistant to both ampicillin and cloxacillin but show variable sensitivity to gentamicine and cefotaxime. Most of the isolated gram positive bacteria were sensitive to ampicillin, cloxacillin and cefotaxime but highly resistant to gentamicin. The death rate was 20.9%. Early onset sepsis, male gender, gestational age less than 37 weeks and birth weight less than 2500 gm were found to be significantly associated with death. Conclusions: Gram negative bacteria were the main cause of early and late-onset neonatal sepsis in our center and many of these isolated bacteria were resistant to the used antibiotics. Low birth weight neonates <2500 gm, gestational age < 37weeks, male gender and early onset sepsis were significantly associated with death. The death rate due to neonatal sepsis was higher compared with the other studies. Recommendations: Proper antenatal care and optimal obstetric management in early detection and treatment of mothers at risks together with minimizing invasive procedures of infants as much as possible and ideal nursery setup which includes adequate space for care of infants and aseptic equipments for monitoring.