The prevalence and relationship of root caries depth and gingival recession among different Iraqi groups


Background: Root caries is considered as a major dental problem in persons withadvanced age. It most often occurs at or close to the cemento-enamel junction. Adominating dental problem in the patients of periodontal diseases is the rootcaries. Specifically, gingival recession often results in root surfaces exposure andincrease risk for root caries. The aim from this study is to determine theprevalence of the gingival recession and the root caries depth, and to find therelationship between root caries depth and gingival recession at different agestages for both genders using scores for both root caries depth and gingivalrecession.Materials and Methods: The study sample consisted of (144) patients was selected,aged (21-65) years old, from patients attending the Dental Clinics of Al-Mustansiriyah University, Alrafidain College and Althawra Dental Centers.Questionnaire case sheet forms were filled by dentist. For each patient, clinicalexamination was performed using a periodontal probe to measure root caries depthand gingival recession.Results: The prevalence of gingival recession and root caries was higher in malegroups (1,3,5) in comparison with female groups (2,4,6) and increased with age inall teeth and surfaces. The study showed that females aged 21-35 years (group 2)had lower percentage of gingival recession (8% for teeth and 5.1% for surfaces)and root caries (6.9% for teeth and 5.3% for surfaces); while males aged 51-65years (group 5) showed higher percentage of gingival recession (23.7% for teethand 24.8% for surfaces) and root caries (30.6% for teeth and 25.3% for surfaces).Mandibular anterior teeth exhibited more gingival recession (22.1) than otherteeth; while mandibular molar teeth exhibited more root caries (23.6%) than otherteeth. The facial surfaces of maxillary and mandibular teeth were showed higherpercentage of gingival recession (15.3% for maxillary, 17.2% for mandibular) androot caries (17.3% for maxillary, 20.5% for mandibular) in comparison with othersurfaces. This study showed a significant difference between root caries depthscores (1,2,3), gingival recession scores (2,3) and also with the age; while therewas non-significant difference between root caries depth scores (1,2,3) andgingival recession score (1).Conclusion: There was a positive relationship between root caries depth and gingivalrecession with advance of age. This can be related to that, patients with advance ofage have susceptibility to expose for longer time to risk factors due to periodontalMDJdiseases that can lead to increased gingival recession and root caries. Gingivalrecession and root caries were found in males more than females.