Waterpipe Smoking Effect on Clinical Periodontal Parameters, Salivary Flow Rate and Salivary pH in Chronic ‎Periodontitis Patient

Saif Mohammed T. Al-Mufti --- Saif S. Saliem سيف سهام سليم

Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد
ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2018 Volume: 30 Issue: 1 Pages: 63-68
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد


Background: Waterpipe tobacco smoking has become common especially among young people, Waterpipe smoking misconcepted as a safer mean of smoking, so in this study we will highlight the effect of Waterpipe smoking ‎on periodontal and oral health.‎Materials and method. The selected ‎‎‎100 male subjects of 30-40 years, ‎categorized into 4 groups (each group ‎‎25 subject): Waterpipe smoker ‎with ‎healthy periodontium, ‎Waterpipe smoker ‎‎with chronic periodontitis, Non-‎‎smoker ‎with healthy periodontium and Non-smoker ‎with chronic periodontitis. Whole ‎unstimulated ‎saliva was collected. Clinical measurements: plaque ‎index, ‎gingival index, ‎bleeding on probing, salivary flow ‎rate ‎and ‎salivary pH were recorded‎.‎ ‎Results. In the healthy groups: plaque index and salivary pH were ‎higher in smokers than non-smokers but with no ‎significant difference (P>0.05). While gingival index and salivary flow rate were ‎higher in smoker than non-smokers and with significant ‎difference (p<0.05). In the chronic periodontitis groups: plaque index, gingival index and salivary flow rate ‎were higher in the non-smokers than smokers and with ‎significant difference (p<0.05). While salivary pH was ‎higher in the non-smokers than smokers but with no ‎significant difference (P>0.05). Correlation between ‎weekly smoking hours with pH and salivary flow rate, in the ‎smoker healthy groups, showed ‎significant negative correlation, while plaque index showed ‎significant positive correlation at (p<0.05). But in the smokers with chronic periodontitis, only gingival index ‎significantly correlated with weekly smoking hours. Conclusion. Waterpipe smoking has a detrimental effect on the periodontium and overall oral health


Waterpipe --- smoker --- gingivitis --- saliva