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Linguistic Features of Parallelism

الملامح اللغوية للتوازي

أ.د رياض طارق كاظم أ. رزاق نايق مخيف

journal of Human Sciences مجلة العلوم الانسانية
ISSN: 19922876 Year: 2019 Volume: 1 Issue: 26 Pages: 1-23
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

Abstract

This study deals with the linguistic analysis of parallelism in American and British political speeches during the period of election . Parallelism is considered a linguistic phenomenon which functions on three levels : syntactic , semantic and phonological . Parallelism is a rhetorical device which explains the relationship between linguistic structures which are parallel to each other . Different types of parallelism may be distinguished at the linguistic structure : lexical , syntactic , synonymous , synthetic , antithetical , binary and ternary . Politicians use parallelism to make their speech cohesive , to persuade their audience and to emphasize their aims . The study intends to achieve the following aims : ( 1 ) indicating the use of parallelism in American and British political speeches ; ( 2 ) exploring the role of parallelism in American and British political speeches ; ( 3 ) presenting a linguistic analysis of parallelism ; ( 4 ) attempting to find out the role of rhetorical devices in American and British political speeches . To achieve the aims of the study , it is hypothesized that : (1) Both American and British politicians resort to parallelism with similar aim of persuading audience and express their ideas ; (2) parallelism plays an important role in political speeches ; (3) parallelism works on three levels of linguistic analysis : syntactic , semantic and phonological ; (4) American and British politicians use rhetorical devices to make the influence of parallelism so effective . To test the validity of these hypothesis , certain procedures have been followed : 1-presenting a theoretical background of the relevant literature written about the topic . 2-Presenting knowledge about aspects of political language with reference to parallelism .3-Using an eclectic model to analyze the term parallelism linguistically depending on different references . 4- Analyzing certain texts selected from American and British political speeches . The content of the study consists of five chapters . Chapter one represents the introduction which includes statement of the problem , aims of the study , hypotheses , procedures , limits of the study and value of the study . Chapter two is devoted to the study of aspects of political language and parallelism . Chapter three comprises the theoretical background and linguistic features of parallelism . Chapter four deals with the practical side of the study which include data analysis and results of analysis .1.1 Introduction Murana (2011: 260) uses parallelism as a linguistic feature that corroborates indirection , he says " it is a form of ' tautology' that does not lead to boredom but ensures communicative efficacy." This is because parallel structures are often repeated but this repletion beautifies the text or utterance and makes meaning cleaner. "Linguistic parallelism refers to the pattern repetition in discourse for creating stylistic effect." It can operate on different fields of linguistics, for example, it can be phonological when it takes the form of initial , medial or end rhyme and it is most distinguished with the presence of alliteration and assonance. It is lexico-semantic if it involves synonymous or antonymous words occurring in paradigmatic relation. It is, however, syntactic when the parallel occurs at clausal or group level. At this level, the structures are equivalent- sameness of mood, textual pattern and thematic structure constitute parallelism (ibid:262) According to Shamaileh (2011:50) "parallelism plays a significant role in strengthening , emphasizing , drawing attention to a parallel structure and achieving greater impact on recipient(s)." Parallelism is when different parts of a sentence or thoughts format similarly to emphasize either their commonalities or differences. Parallelism gives a sentence a good rhythm and (usually) makes it easier to read which means to give two or more parts of the sentences a similar form so as to give the whole a definite pattern. It is an expression used to refer to repetition of syntactic structure or form in two or more configurations with new or different content. A parallel structure is usually connected by joining words. De Beaugrande and Dressier ( 1983:49,75 ) describe "parallelism as repeating a structure but filling it with new elements" or … using surface formats but filling them with different expressions Another definition of parallelism is provided by Ivany (1993: 49-50) who states: " The parallel line does not simply repeat what has been said , but enriches it, deepens it , transforms it by adding fresh nuances and bringing in new elements, renders it more concrete

دراسة لغوية لمفهوم التوازي في الخطب السياسية تهدف الدراسة الى تحليل لغوي للتوازي في الخطب السياسية للساسة الامريكيان والبريطانيين. ان التوازي يعتبر ظاهرة لغوية تعمل على ثلاثة مستويات لغويه : النحوية والدلالية والصوتية .ان التوازي يعتبر وسيله بلاغية لتوضيح العلاقة بين التراكيب اللغوية التي تكون موازيه احدها للأخر. توجد عدة انواع من التوازي : المفرداتي, النحوي, المتشابه, المكمل , المناقض, المزدوج, والثلاثي. ان السياسين يستخدمون التوازي للاقناع وجعل كلامهم متماسك للمستمعين ولتاكيد اهدافهم.ان البحث يهدف الى مايلي : 1- توضيح استخدام التوازي في الخطب السياسية للامريكان والبريطانيين.2- بيان دور التوازي في الخطب السياسية الامريكية والبريطانية.3- تقديم تحليل لغوي للتوازي .4- المحاوله لايجاد دور الاساليب البلاغيه في الخطب السياسية.لتحقيق هذه الاهداف فان الباحث يفترض ما يلي :-1- كلا الساسة الامريكان والبريطانيون يلجؤون الى التوازي بنفس الهدف لإقناع المستمعين وبيان اهدافهم.2- يلعب التوازي دور مهم في الخطب السياسية.3- التوازي تعمل على ثلاث مستويات من التحليل: اللغوي , النحوي , الدلالي , والصوتي.4- الساسة الامريكان والبريطانيون يستخدمون الأساليب البلاغية لجعل تاثير التوازي فعال الدراسة تشمل على خمسة فصول الفصل الاول يتضمن المقدمه, الفصل الثاني مخصص لدراسة مظاهر اللغه السياسية بالإشارة الى التوازي الفصل الثالث يشمل دراسة نظريه والسمات اللغوية للتوازي الفصل الرابع يتعامل مع الجانب العملي من الدراسة والتي يتضمن تحليل الخطب السياسية ونتائج التحليل الفصل الخامس يتضمن الاستنتاجات والتوصيات.

Keywords

of the study which include data analysis and results of analysis . 1.1 Introduction --- من الدراسة والتي يتضمن تحليل الخطب السياسية ونتائج التحليل الفصل الخامس يتضمن الاستنتاجات والتوصيات.