Japan Transformation From Democracy to Authoritarian Historical Study in Japan Political Developments

اليابان من الديمقراطية إلى الفاشية دراسة تاريخية في التطورات السياسية في اليابان (1868-1890)

.نشأت كامل محمد

Alustath الاستاذ
ISSN: 0552265X 25189263 Year: 2008 Issue: 71 Pages: 695-775
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد


In January 3, 1868 a group of Samurai succeeded in overthrowing the powerful Tokugawa Shogunate, and their entry to power called a restoration of the Emperor "Meiji". They used the "Restoration" to effective power.Restoration was really a kind of revolution, but not a revolution from below, rather from above, this included the geographical basis of state power to elites from the western and southwestern "hans". The new Meiji rulers became an Oligarchy that ruled through the emperor, who was no more than rubberstamp for their "advices".The new rulers clearly recognizing that the west was the greatest threat to Japan's integrity and existence. They proposed as the beast to build a "rich country and strong army" based on western technology and institutions, so they established universal primary education and setup a number of universities. They undercutting the Samurai's monopoly on the right to bear arms, thus undercutting the Samurai's independent basis of power. The Oligarchy transformed the country from an apparent feudal back water to a dynamic and expansionary industrial state.But, the press was subject to wide control and censorship, education was the tool of the government to produce docile servants of the state targets since the emperor was commander-in-chief and theoretically had direct control of the armed forces the ministers of army and navy had to have direct access to him and therefore could go over the heads of cabinet and diet. It was decreed that only a general on the active list could be minister of army and only admiral on the active list could be minister of the navy. The effect of this obvious, whenever the tow armed services were displeased at government policy they could overthrow a cabinet by resigning. The 1889 constitution which was given to the people by the emperor based on Prussian model: the emperor should retain effective power, the parliament should have a consultative role, and the parties should be an important opposition rather than potential alternative government.On the surface, Japanese government was liberal and parliamentary, or on other words it was western on the surface but, deep within it was martial and authoritarian.