Determination of the Physicochemical and Organoleptic Properties of Iraqi Basil Seeds Gum (Ocimum basilicum) and Detection of Phytochemicals

Abstract

The aim of this study was to extract basil seed gum and to examine the physicochemical properties. The pH value, relative density of 1% gum solution, bulk density, tap density, Hausner's ratio, compressibility index and loss on drying of the gum are: 6.3, 0.977 g/cm3, 0.30 g/cm3, 0.32g/cm3, 1.06, 6.25% and 7.2% respectively, and for the Arabic gum as a comparison gum were: 4.5, 0.6641 g/cm3, 0.68 g/cm3, 0.90 g/cm3, 1.32, 24.44%, 4.8% respectively. The melting point of the basil seed gum was high compared to the Arabic gum which was 290 and 275 °C respectively. The gum shows high swelling ability with water where the swelling index reached 5.6% and it was less than the swelling index in 0.5% concentration of sodium hydroxide solution reaching 5.0%. Basil seed gum characterized as a good organoleptic properties as it was tasteless and odorless, creamy color shaped like hygroscopic powder. It also shows positive results for reducing sugar and protein. The presence of small amount of protein in gum was very important for enhancing emulsification properties, fat holding capacity and other functional properties.