Saliva as a Diagnostic Fluid in Lead Exposed Subject

Abstract

Background: Lead poisoning has been recognized since antiquity. In the second century B.C., Dioscorides, a Greek physician said “lead makes the mind give way” lead poisoning in adults continues to occur today, mostly as a consequence of occupational exposures. Heavy metal poisoning is the toxic accumulation of heavy metals in the soft tissues of the body.
In human, lead can results in a wide range of biological effects depending upon the level and duration of exposure. Effects at the subcellular level as well as effects on the overall functioning of the body have been noted and range from inhibition of enzymes to the production of marked morphological changes and death. Such changes occur over a broad ranges of doses, the developing human generally being more sensitive than the adult.
Objectives: To Study the possibility of using salivary lead concentration as alternative to blood lead concentration and estimate (clinical, biochemical, hematological and saliva cytological) changes to in lead exposed individual.
Patients and Methods: The sample population of this study was comprised 56 lead exposed subjects and 20 healthy subjects. The general information's were taken from each person including the name, age and duration of the lead exposure as well as saliva and blood samples.
Results: The result of this study showed a significant difference in the salivary lead concentration of the exposed and healthy groups while the blood lead
concentration in the same groups were highly significant difference, that is mean the saliva has a significant value in the detection of lead toxicity.
Conclusion: Saliva testing for lead can become a valuable strategy for meeting the increasing demand for lead testing.